JDBC Drivers

JDBC Drivers are categorized in four types

Type-1 Driver: JDBCD-ODBC Bridge Driver

  • Type-1 Driver acts as bridge between JDBC and other database connectivity mechanism like ODBC.
  • Type-1 Driver example is Sun JDBC-ODBC bridge driver(in sun.jdbc.odbc package)
  • This driver converts JDBC calls into ODBC calls and redirects the request to ODBC driver
  • ODBC driver uses SP(Stored Procedure) APIs to make DBMS specific call

Advantages

  • Single driver implementation for different databases
  • Vendor independent driver
  • Supports all databases supported by the ODBC driver

Disadvantages

  • Slow execution speed due to large number of calls and translations
  • Fully dependent on ODBC driver
  • ODBC client library should be installed at client machine

Note

  • The JDBC-ODBC Bridge has been removed in JDBC 4.2
  • Type-1 driver should not be used in production environment and with auto-installation applications likes Applets.

Type-2 Driver: Java to Native API(Partly Java Driver)

  • Type-2 Driver converts JDBC calls into database vendor specific native call using JNI
  • These database specific calls then dispatched to db specific native libraries
  • Native libraries sends request to db server by native protocol
  • Example: Weblogic Type-2 Driver by BEA Weblogic

Advantages

  • Fast processing as compared to Type-1 Driver
  • Contains exclusive feature provided by DB vendor and supported by JDBC specification

Disadvantages

  • Native librariesto be installed on client machine
  • Executes DB specific native functions on JVM, aby bug in Type-2 driver might crash the JVM
  • Increase the cost of application in case it runs on different platforms

Type-3 Driver: Java to Network Protocol(Pure Java Driver)

  • Type-3 Driver converts JDBC calls into middleware server specific calls
  • Driver communicates with middleware over a socket
  • Middleware converts these calls into database specific calls
  • These type of drivers also known as net-protocol drivers
  • Example: IDS Driver, WebLogic RMI Driver

Advantages

  • Additional features like Pool Management, performance improvement and connection availability
  • It is auto downloadable so best suits for Applets
  • No native library needed to be installed in client machine
  • Database independent, middleware takes care of converting calls to DB specific calls
  • Database details are not required at client side because it is available at middle-ware server
  • Easy to switch among databases, without changing client side driver classes

Disadvantages

  • Performes task slowly because network call is involved
  • Cost of middleware server is more

Type-4 Driver: Java to Database Protocol(Pure Java Driver)

  • Type-4 implements the database protocol to interact directly with a database
  • This driver prepares a DBMS specific network message and then communicates with DB server over a socket
  • Type-4 Driver uses DB specific proprietary protocol for communication
  • Generally these type of drivers are implemented by DBMS vendors, since the protocols used are proprietary
  • Example: Oracle Thin driver, WebLogic & Mysqlserver4 for MY SQL server from BEA system

Advantages

  • This is lightweight driver
  • Auto downloadable
  • No native library needed to be installed at client side
  • No middleware server required

Disadvantages

  • This uses database specific proprietary protocol so it is vendor dependent
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